HIV Testing In New York – What Can You Expect?

There have been some significant changes to the process of HIV testing in New York, all in an attempt to make it more readily available and as straight-forward a process as possible. Residents of New York may have noticed that their primary physicians have been offering HIV testing more often. This could be because they suspect risky behavior, they usually recommend regular testing, or simply because it’s required by state law.

In an attempt to make HIV testing easier to acquire, New York and other states have required that any person between the ages of 13 and 64 seeking non-emergency care must be offered an HIV test. They are not required to accept the offer. However, if they should choose to have the test done the provider must cover some important details regarding the testing. They will explain basic details about HIV and AIDS, the confidentiality of testing and, if the test should come back HIV-positive, what steps can be taken for treatment and management of the disease.

While it may seem difficult and unnecessary for them to cover this information with you, it is for your benefit and usually is not extremely difficult to complete. For instance, if someone were to visit the Health department at 303 9th Avenue in New York, NY 10001, they may ask general questions about your sexual history to determine your risk level. It is very important that you are truthful in your answers in order to establish the best testing option. Additionally, they might ask you for personal information such as a street address or ethnicity. This information is primarily used for statistical reasons and to avoid double reporting. As always, the information regarding your testing is to remain completely private and confidential.

Apart from the testing and reporting regulations for HIV testing in New York, you will also find that there are various options available for how to get tested. The local health department (mentioned earlier as well as several other locations throughout New York) is almost always an available resource; however, the process is often more difficult than expected. A first-come first-served operation with limited hours of operation often leaves you in a waiting room for extended periods of time.

Testing through your personal doctor is also a great option, but some people are embarrassed to talk to their doctor about HIV or don’t want the testing going on their medical records.

Lastly, you can get tested through online testing companies. The cost varies, but generally you can get the collection done the same day you call and receive results within a few business days. With this option you would most likely be visiting a generalized collection facility, such as the one located at 269 W. 16th Street in New York, NY 10011. These locations usually do collections for just about any blood and/or urine test available.

Regardless of which route you decide to take, HIV testing in New York can be a bit more involved than testing elsewhere. In the end though, it’s better than no testing at all.

Hypoglycemia And Surgery

A common side effect of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is hypoglycemia. While this can occur at different times, one concern involves its occurrence at an inopportune time, such as before or after surgery. How do you handle this condition at such a time?

Hypoglycemia is a condition that affects diabetics when their blood sugar level becomes too low. This could be due to not eating the right foods or not eating food at the right intervals, such as skipping meals and snacks. Low blood sugar can be brought on by depleting the body’s glucose levels too quickly, such as with exercise. It can also be characteristic of an imbalance with your glucose or insulin.

For blood sugar to qualify as being hypoglycemic, it typically needs to be lower than 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). Having a blood sugar level this low can be extremely dangerous. If the situation isn’t corrected immediately, it can lead to a host of complications, up to and including shock and without treatment, eventually, death.

When an individual has scheduled surgery, the threat of hypoglycemia needs to be addressed. The first thing the individual needs to do is to make sure their surgeon is aware of their condition. Hopefully, the diabetic’s primary care doctor will have already taken care of notifying the surgeon. Once the surgeon is aware of the situation, they can then make arrangements to prevent an episode from occurring. If the surgery is major and you will be missing out on meals, you should have intravenous therapy.

But what happens if the diabetic has to undergo surgery that isn’t planned? This is where having the proper identification of Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes will be necessary. Being equipped with a diabetes bracelet or necklace will help in the event you are not able to communicate this information to those who will be providing the treatment.

Whether the surgery is planned or not, the attending doctor will still need to make arrangements so you do not experience a hypoglycemic episode. How do they do that? As most surgeries are performed when the diabetic has an empty stomach (to help prevent post-operative nausea and vomiting), it is the usual for intravenous therapy containing glucose be inserted prior to surgery.

The best plan is to make sure the diabetic has a recent history of stable blood sugar levels. This will go a long way in preventing an episode from occurring if they have been closely regulating their blood sugar ahead of time. The likelihood of an episode occurring is also reduced if the Type 2 diabetic is not currently on medication for their condition.

If the surgery is not planned, the only thing you can do is to make sure all the medical staff know about your Type 2 diabetes.

Dealing With Clogged Arteries

There are three sets of arteries that can become clogged and create life threatening problems.


  1. The most well known is, of course, the coronary arteries. These important blood vessels supply the heart muscle with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to keep blood moving throughout the body.
  2. The carotid artery in the neck can also become clogged. That can lead to strokes.
  3. The peripheral arteries in your legs are another plaque target. When either of these become clogged, clots can form and that’s what does the damage.

There are two ways you are likely to find out you’ve got clogged arteries. Testing before a problem begins or when the problem strikes. Needless to say, your chances of survival are much greater if it’s prior to a heart attack or stroke.

  1. Ultrasound: Special ultrasound equipment can check for clogged arteries without the need for invasive procedures. This is best done for those at risk but asymptomatic. In a way, it’s an arterial checkup. Ultrasounds may also be used after problems develop, but that would not be the only testing procedure used.
  2. Stress Tests: These tests are usually done on a treadmill. The doctor will attach the wires to the appropriate areas of the body and ramp up the machine. This shows how your heart and blood vessels work under load. If you are unable to use a treadmill, a chemical stress test is also available.

Angiogram: This is an invasive test, but it is one that can find blockages missed by the other tests, and that can happen. An incision is made in the groin and a camera is sent up to the heart. Dye in the blood stream allows the doctor to explore all the arteries in the heart, checking for blockages. If any are found, angioplasty may be done. This is done with a balloon like object that gently opens the passages. Sometimes stents are added as well, to make sure the artery stays open.

If you have or are at risk for any sort of artery problem, it’s a good idea to stay on top of it. Watch your diet, get plenty of exercise, but even that may not be enough. Get checkups regularly and make sure your doctor knows of your risk factors.

The Anatomy Of A Stroke

A stroke is a devastating attack upon the body that often comes on suddenly, many times without warning. Known as the “silent killer”, what many people do not realize is that it can be prevented, quite easily if they simply have a regular physical, and stay on top of any developing medical conditions.

What is a Stroke?

By definition, a stroke occurs whenever a blood vessel in the brain gets blocked or damaged. Without oxygen being delivered through that blood vessel, the brain begins to die, and whatever part of the body that portion of the brain controls will no longer work as it should. Brain damage can occur within minutes of the blood stoppage but quick treatment can limit the amount of damage and increase the chances for a full recovery.

Stroke Symptoms

There are several distinct symptoms that are considered to be signs of stroke, and if you should develop any of the following, please seek medical assistance immediately. There is also a condition known as a transient ischemic attack or TIA, that, while not as seriously damaging, its presence could be considered to be a harbinger of things to come.

Stroke symptoms include:

  • Sudden numbness, tingling, loss of movement or weakness: This will occur in the face, arm or leg, on one side of the body only.
  • Vision Changes: This could be anything from spots obscuring vision to sudden blurriness in one eye or a complete loss of vision in one eye.
  • Trouble Speaking: If the blood is stopped to the portion of the brain that controls vision or speech, the ability to speak clearly ends and your speech may become slurred.
  • Confusion: As the brain loses oxygen, cognitive reasoning will begin to slow, making it hard to understand even the most simple line of thought or concept.
  • Sudden Onset Headache: This headache is a sign of oxygen deprivation to the brain, and will be quite painful.
  • Problems with Walking or Balance: You will lose the ability to balance as you move, or you may experience weakness on one side of the body. It will become increasingly difficult to move about on your own as your balance deteriorates.

Types and Causes

  1. An ischemic stroke is caused by a blood clot that completely blocks a blood vessel in the brain. It could form within the vessel, or it could travel from elsewhere in the body to the brain. This is the most common type of attack in adults today, and nearly 8 out of every 10 strokes will be an ischemic stroke. Blood clots form for various reasons, and unless they are caught early and removed, they can break free and travel throughout the body.
  2. A hemorrhagic stroke will develop when an artery in the brain either leaks or breaks, causing bleeding inside of the brain or near its surface. These are less common but are actually more deadly than a ischemic stroke, because bleeding in the brain can cause it to shut down far more quickly, and the entire event can become critical within seconds.


  1. The first thing done upon arrival is for the patient to undergo a CT scan, which will show where any bleeding is occurring. Treatment for ischemic strokes will focus on restoring blood flow to the brain where the clot occurred. The medicine used to treat this will dissolve clot quickly, and improve recovery from stroke, if given within 90 minutes of the attack.
  2. Hemorrhagic strokes are very difficult to treat effectively. Surgery or other methods to stop the bleeding may be required, to prevent swelling of the brain. This can include medicines that will affect your blood pressure, agents to counteract the swelling and coagulants to reduce the bleeding.


To avoid the possibility of a stroke, the easiest thing to do is to listen to your body. If health issues develop, see a doctor and get treated, especially if you have a family history of high blood pressure, cholesterol or diabetes. Simple lifestyle changes like a healthy diet, and quitting smoking and alcohol use will also reduce your chances of one ever happening to you.

Gallbladder Surgery Recovery Time

Although there are a lot of other factors, your gallbladder surgery recovery time may rely heavily on the type of gall bladder surgery you have undergone to. This article will discuss about the 2 major types of surgery for your gallbladder and the effects these types have for your gallbladder surgery recovery time. You should know that there are 2 major types of gall bladder surgery. The first one is the traditional open cholecystectomy and the second is the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy means the removal of your gall bladder.

As of these recent years, the use of laparascopic equipments is becoming more and more popular among medical practitioners, health care facilities and patients as well. People are now aiming for a faster operation with faster gallbladder surgery recovery time as well. Seven out of 10 patients who have to undergo cholecystectomy are encouraged to choose laparoscopic surgery than open surgery. However, traditional surgery is not exactly obsolete. There are certain conditions or factors that would prompt the doctor to recommend open surgery than laparoscopy.

As of the gallbladder surgery recovery time, one could say that laparoscopic surgery is your option of choice if you want to get into your normal life as soon as possible.

Traditional Gallbladder Surgery Recovery Time

Its no secret that traditional gall bladder surgery involves an incision on the surgical site. After operation, the doctor will have to monitor you for possible complications and make sure you are safeguarded from the risk of infection and inflammation on the site. Because of this, the patient may be advised to stay in the hospital for a couple of days until your surgeon is assured that proper healing has began and it’s safe for you to continue healing at home. Expect your health care practitioners to monitor your pain levels and adjust your pain medication accordingly.

Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery Recovery Time
Because there is no need for a patient to stay hospitalized long, laparoscopic surgery is usually done in a surgical clinic as is considered an outpatient operation. In most cases, patients go home the same day after the surgery. But its really for your surgeon to decide whether you’re free to go or not, thus there are some clinics with an overnight room for patients that are still in need of accurate monitoring.

With a laparoscopic operation, you have lesser pain, lesser complications, lesser bleeding and lesser chances of inflammation. This operation has also been proven to lessen the possibility of experiencing after-surgery effects like diarrhea and nausea.

Your doctor will still advise you to take it easy for the next couple of days post-op. Some patients are already allowed to go to work after a few days but this will depend on what type of job you got. Those who handle office jobs are safe to return to work the first week after surgery but those who perform manual labor for living may have to wait for at least 2 weeks to get back to the job, and even at that time, they may only be restricted to an allowable weight.