Classified the severity of asthma

The severity of asthma was classified according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines. Children with mild intermittent asthma (five children) had symptoms less often than weekly and were not receiving any medication on a regular basis, but they did use an inhaled p2-agonist, as needed, for symptom relief. Children with mild persistent asthma (four children) had more frequent but not daily symptoms and were given therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (budesonide, 0.2 to 0.4 mg; fluticasone propionate, 0.1 to 0.2 mg) regularly (starting 2 to 4 months before entering the study). Children with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma (11 children) had daily symptoms and were taking high-dose inhaled steroids regularly (budesonide, > 0.4 mg/d; fluticasone propionate, > 0.2 mg/d).

CF Group

Children with CF received diagnoses on the basis of the typical symptoms of the condition, two mutations in the CF gene, and an abnormal sweat test result (ie, sweat chloride concentration, > 60 mmol/L). Ten children were studied during an exacerbation of their lung disease, which had been diagnosed using conventional criteria, and the other 10 children were stable. All children were chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or both. Additional exclusion criteria were the concurrent diagnosis of asthma, current oral steroid therapy, and a sputum culture positive for Burkholderia cepacia.

Lung Function and Canadian Health and Care Pharmacy

Spirometry (Erich Jaeger; Market Harborough, UK) was performed within 1 day of EBC collection. The best value of three maneuvers was expressed as a percentage of the predicted normal value.

EBC

EBC was collected using a condenser that allowed for the noninvasive collection of the nongaseous components of the expired air (EcoScreen; Jaeger; Wurzburg, Germany), as a previously described.

Assays

A specific enzyme immunoassay (Cayman Chemical; Ann Arbor, MI) was used to measure LTB4 in the EBC. Intra-assay and interassay variability was < 10%. The specificity was 100%, and the detection limit of the assay was 3 pg/mL.

Isolated asthma decreased with age

The proportions of mutually exclusive disease groups also were displayed as horizontal stacked bars, for comparison by gender and age, after pooling the data from the two population samples (Fig 5). For the sake of clarity and simplicity, we grouped CB and emphysema together as CB-emphysema, thus reducing the number of disease groups from 15 to 7. Only people > 20 years of age were analyzed, since CB and emphysema were virtually nonexistent in younger subjects. In both genders, regardless of the presence of obstruction, isolated asthma decreased with age, while the incidence of isolated CB-emphy-sema and the combination of asthma and CB-emphysema increased. The incidence of isolated AO increased with age as well.

In particular, among these 711 subjects with either OLD or AO, the relative size of the asthma-only group (regardless of the presence of obstruction) decreased with age in men and women (20 to 44 years of age, 41.7% and 52.5%, respectively; 45 to 64 years of age, 11.2% and 24.8%, respectively; and > 65 years of age, 5.6% and 14%, respectively). Within the asthma-only group, the proportion of those subjects with AO increased with age in women (20.9%, 28.6%, and 33.3%, respectively), while it increased up to 64 years and then decreased in men (21.8%, 68%, and 60%, respectively). The relative size of the CB-emphysema group (regardless of the presence of obstruction) increased with age in men and women (20 to 44 years of age, 6.1% and 7.3%, respectively; 45 to 64 years of age, 26.8% and 9.9%, respectively; > 65 years of age, 27% and 21%, respectively).

Within the CB-emphysema group, the proportion of those with AO increased with age in men (12.5%, 38.3%, and 62.5%, respectively), while it increased up to 64 years and then decreased in women (16.7%, 28.6%, and 22.2%, respectively). Finally, the frequency of the simultaneous presence of all three OLD conditions increased with age in men (3.0%, 3.1%, and 6.7%, respectively), while it increased up to 64 years and then decreased in women (1.2%, 7%, and 4.7%, respectively). Within this group, the proportion of those with AO ranged from 50% (in men 20 to 44 years of age and in women 45 to 64 years of age) to 100% (in younger and older women). The relative size of isolated AO increased from 49.2% in men 20 to 44 years of age, to 58.9% in men 45 to 64 years of age, to 60.7% in men > 65 years of age. The values for women Female viagra Australia in the same age groups were 39%, 58.2%, and 60.5%, respectively.